2017-01-27 21:57:47 UTC
Updated May 16, 2016
Just a little note - Dravidian is no longer used to denote a ‘race’ but is instead considered a linguistic group and only used in relation to languages.
Now, there are 4 main racial groups in the world :
Caucasoid, Negroid, Mongoloid and Australoid
They are each unique and distinct and classified according to genetics, phenotypes skull structure etc.
Many mistakenly assume (and in earlier ages it was thought) that Australoid and Negroid are same - this is NOT true and is now thoroughly disproved scientifically
Australoids are a unique group (according to genetic phenotypes and skull structure) who are completely different from Negroid (In fact Caucasians are actually closer to Negroid genetically than Australoid are to Negroid).
According to theorists, Caucasoids came from Negroids and Mongoloids came from Australoids. (Australoids evolved in Asia and Negroids in Africa). Negroids and Australoids are the ‘older’ or original root races.
Now each of these races have sub groups
Caucasian sub groups are : Slavic, Semitic, Aryan etc.
Negroid sub groups are : Bantu, Khoisan etc.
Mongoloid sub groups are : Tibetan, Maori, Eskimo etc.
Australoid sub groups are : Japanese Ainu, Australian Aboriginals, Pacific Islanders such as Micronesian and Melanesian etc.
Now Indians are a diverse mixture.
Linguistic and genetic studies have demonstrated that almost all groups in the Indian subcontinent today descend from a mixture of two highly divergent populations: Ancestral North Indians (ANI) related to Caucasoid (can be Central Asians, Semitics or Slavic), and Ancestral South Indians (ASI) who are NOT descended from any populations outside the Indian subcontinent, but wholly from within the subcontinent. In terms of race classifications, the people generally referred to as ASI (or ancestral South Indian) in genetic terms can be referred to as ‘Dravidoid hybrid’ to make things simpler here in this answer.
(Just to note, ANI and ASI are not genetic 'markers' but 'clusters'. ANI is closer to Caucasians than to ASI, while ASI is a population isolate exclusive to the Indian subcontinent. Just as a guide, Pashtuns have 20% ASI, Punjabi Jats have 30% ASI, Keralans from South India have 35% ASI etc. The ASI also goes beyond the current day borders of Indian subcontinent. It is present in the Kalash (blonde haired and blue eyed) at 13%. Central Asians do have some ASI, probably any where from 1-5%, and even Iranians can have at least 3-5%).
Indians are scientifically considered Causcasoid (as ALL have some ANI or Causcasoid in their genes). But ALL from the subcontinent - Indian pakistani banglaesh nepal Sri Lanka (and a few beyond in Iran and Afganistan etc.) contain a percentage of the ‘indigenous’ Dravidoid hybrid or ASI without exception.
Now the original ‘pure’ Dravidoids have always been a bit of a mystery.
Do Dravidoids belong to negroid race? Definitely NO.
It was at one time wondered if Dravidoids were in any way related to Negroid but scientifically this is proved to not be the case. Dravidoids are not at all connected with Negroid race, in fact Negroid has little or no presence in Indian subcontinent (Negroid race is hardly at all found genetically in India Pakistan Bangladesh Nepal or Sri Lanka - except for the Siddi people mainly in Pakistan in Makran region where they are also called Makrani, and also in small numbers in India. Pakistan has the most people of Negroid descent in South Asia - at least a quarter of the total population of the Makran coast is of African ancestry -ie. 250,000. BUT they are not in anyway connected to Dravidian race and are NOT indigenous to Indian subcontinent).
Geographically Dravidians occupy the Southern region of India and Sri Lanka - but beyond that, even the nearest island beyond Sri Lanka ie. Andaman and Nicobar - have little or no cultural, language, religious, food etc. links of any type with Indian and Pakistani Dravidian peoples. What they DO have however is the presence of some ASI related genes without any ANI admixture - the only group of people in the entire subcontinent untouched by ANI influence genetically.
Another unique feature they have is napy hair (ie African type hair) - something found NO WHERE in the Indian subcontinent. If the napy hair was a feature of the ASI Dravidoids, then at least some of the Indian population would possess something like it or halfway, but that simply does not exist.
This suggests they are not the original Dravidoids. It is more likely that they are Australoids (with napy hair) who migrated to the islands many years ago via the Pacific and Southern Indian Ocean and intermixed with Australoid Dravidoid hybrids ( who arose due to intermixing of Australoid with Dravidoid BEFORE those Dravidoids had intermixed with any other races) which explains the presence of clusters related to only ASI genetic admixture. They then became endogamous due to geographical isolation, preventing any additional genetic mix with any other race.
Dravidian is also in existence in one large region in Pakistan in Balochistan - disconnected from the rest of the Dravidian population in India. In this region of Pakistan the Dravidian language is also spoken - ‘Brahui’ - which is an ancient language closely related with the Dravidian languages of South India and Sri Lanka. Which is very interesting and a bit mysterious.
Do Dravidoids belong to Australoid race? POSSIBLY. But, it is also possible that they are indigenous mongoloids (!)
Via skull structure, ASI teeth are different from Australoid teeth and the shape lies halfway between Australoid teeth and Mongoloid teeth. This implies that they are halfway between Australoids and classic Mongoloids. Could the original Dravidoids be Mongoloids?
Geographical and Cultural:
If we look at the spread ‘zonally’ then the Caucasoids spread out from Central Asia westwards and northwards through Europe, and eastwards and southwards through North India. While the Australoids spread from Australia, through Indo China and into India. The Mongoloids are generally thought to have entered at a later stage through the east, north east and to a lesser extent north west regions and gradually intermixed.
The Australoids zonal ‘belt’ is vast. It extends from the Australian mainland, through the islands of Japan, Pacific islands of Papua New Guinea, through Indonesia and Malaysia, through Cambodia Laos and Burma and then enters the Indian subcontinent through the tribal belt that runs the breadth of India. (by this time they have mixed so much they lose much of the typical Australoid features). This tribal belt in India crosses the southern and central part of India and includes the Andaman Nicobar, the NE Indian tribals in Manipur Nagaland etc. goes though Orissa, Bihar and Bengal (Bodo, Gond etc.), through Madhya pradesh, through Gujarat and Rajasthan and I believe then those go on to Europe gradually intermixing fore and more to form the Roma tribes of eastern Europe.
Throughout history, Australoids have always held on to a tribal culture, and never engaged in civilisation building. This is is stark contrast to the Dravidoid people, who possibly built one of the greatest ancient civillisations of Harappa, and then lived in a settled urban manner. Looking at skulls from the Harappa civillisation however, they are NOT found to be purely Australoid. Some were mixed with Mongoloid features.
More likely is that Australoids, being nomadic and tribal migrants entered the subcontinent from the south east and generally intermixed with the population as a whole as they passed through the tribal belt and towards Europe, the Australoid became more and more diluted and mixed in with other races. It was the first intermixing with the original inhabitants of the subcontinent prior to the other races mixing later.
If this is the case then ASI is not Australoid purely - instead it is a hybrid between Australoid and Mongoloid. This hybrid called Dravidoids can thus be considered extinct in pure form, and the ASI is the closest genetic cluster to them.
My Theory :
Dravidoids are the original indigenous people of Indian subcontinent - probably hybrid Australoid race. They were a highly intelligent, cultured, developed and advanced ancient peoples who founded the Indus valley civillisation. The Dravidoids are thus the true original people of the subcontinent, and current day Pakistan is the birthplace from where the Dravidoids originated. These people gave the entire subcontinent the ASI genes.
The Dravidoids were medium skin toned (the darker skin tone was contributed by Australoid genes), fine featured, straight dark haired. They had a unique eyes, bit like Mongoloid but finer. Their first intermixing was with the migrant nomadic Australoids who were dark skinned and had more typically Australoid features. Dravidoids were a peaceful people who did not invade other territories. They probably intermixed freely with Australoids making the original ASI mixture.
At some point, either a war or some catastrophe cast the out of their original land, their civillisation destroyed, and the pure Dravidoid basically suffered an almost complete ethnic genocide and became extinct in ‘pure’ form. This I believe is the reason why the Dravidoid race no longer exists in ‘purity’ today.
According to paleontologists, the major ANI-ASI (Caucasoid mix with ASI) mixture occurred sometime 1,200-4,000 years ago - which is also when the Harappan civillisation suddenly ended. This mixture of ANI and ASI is now universal THROUGHOUT the subcontinent - present in every group speaking Indo-European or Dravidian languages, in all caste levels, and also in primitive tribes (except the Andaman Nicobar Islands who do not have ANI genes due to their escaping the Causcasoid intermixing). After the ANI-ASI mixture occurred widespread endogamy decreased the rate of additional mixture over the last 4000 years.
Now, when the Indus valley civillisation got wiped out, the racially mixed Dravidian survivors (ASI) migrated in 2 different directions :
A minority went northwards and westwards towards Balochistan
The majority went south and eastwards towards South India and to Sri Lanka and resettled.
By this time they were a totally mixed race, and the great age of Indus Valley was long gone and forgotten.
Dravidoids thus may be considered a ‘lost’ race, a mysterious race which no longer exists in ‘pure’ form, but whose remnants form the foundation of the cultural identity of the Indian subcontinent all the way from Pakistan to Bangladesh, all the way from Nepal to Sri Lanka, and even leaves its genetic imprint beyond in Iran Afghanistan and Burma.