Discussion:
Roman gladiator: Is the West strong only because of weaponry?
(too old to reply)
mrliu918
2008-09-18 10:36:01 UTC
Permalink
Quotation from boxing record:

The Roman gladiator was an important part of Western military
tradition of the past. This is how the West train their boxers and
soldiers in the past.


Answer to public concern about the size of special force and the army
divison responsible for killing more than 30000 Iraqi Republican
guards within days.

Answer to public concern whether the special force in Gulf War is
a oneman show and only true in propaganda.

In the past 15 years, I have been receiving phone calls and other
means of harassment particularly from Middle East Region concerning
whether the special force unit in Gulf War is a one man show and
only true in propaganda. The stalkers and spy oftens concern about
the number of special force units capable of doing the job and the
identity of those served in the special force units. They also
concern about members of special force involving in killing the tigers
and
other predators. They are interested in Information about the
technology of US bullet proof vest used by the special force.

My answer regarding this questions in past 15 years is consistent.

They should stop harassing me and contact the US army directly.
The Roman gladiator was an important part of Western military
tradition of the past.
This is how the West train their boxers and soldiers in the past.


Sincerely


Yu Fung Liu



The most famous world boxing Championships (拳击史上知名度最高的重量级拳击冠军阿里
(muhammad ali)和泰森(Mike tyson)及其公开赛相关统计数据)

USA:Ali, Tyson,

阿里(muhammad ali) 公开赛相关统计数
据 国籍(民族)
61 - won: 56 Lost 5 KOs: 37 (56胜 - 5负 -0和 NC 37次击晕对手
KOs) 美国黑人
Born in Jan 17, 1942 (1942年1月17号出生)

The first man to win the heavyweight title three times
Defeated three-time European champion Zbigniew Pietrzykowski and won
one Olympic gold in 1960
拳击史上第一位三届重量级拳击冠军
1960在奥运会上轻易打败欧裔三届拳击冠军并夺取轻重量级拳击奥运金牌
28岁前公开赛中未输一场


泰森(Mike Tyson) 公开赛相关统计数
据 国籍(民族)

won 50 Lost 6 Knockouts 44 (50胜-6负-0和 NC 44次击晕对手
KOs) 美国黑人
Born in June 30, 1966 (1966年6月30号出生)

The youngest champion ever and won the heavyweight title three
times.
拳击史上最年轻的重量级冠军
三届重量级拳击冠军
28岁前公开赛中仅输一场


以年轻六岁的优势和人已中年、快将退休的重量级拳击冠军阿里(muhammad ali)大战十五回合仍落败的Jimmy Young
Jimmy Young 公开赛相关统计数
据 国籍(民族)

Won 34 - Lost 19 - 2 NC 11 KOs (34胜-19负-2和 NC 11次击晕对手
KOs) 美国
Born in November 16, 1948 - February 20, 2005 (1948年11月
16号出生)
李某认为这场比赛有打假拳的嫌疑。



与重量级拳击冠军泰森(Mike tyson)同龄同级的Mark young仅一个回合就战败
Mark Young 公开赛相关统计数
据 国籍(民族)

Won 14 - Lost 37 - 1 NC 9KOs (14胜-37负-1和 NC 9次击晕对手
KOs) 美国
Born in 1963-12-30 (1963年12月30号出生)



It took only one round for Mike Tyson to knock out member of Young's
family while Ali tooks 15 rounds with Jimmy Young. Mike Tyson no doubt
is the best African American boxer although his polititcal association
and achievement is never as great as Muhammad Ali.


Current world boxing Championships (现届的各级别世界冠军和公开赛相关统计数据)

Class 1 (级别) 重量级 公开赛相关统计数据 国籍(民族)
(胜-负-和 NC 击晕对手次数
KOs)
Heavyweight(+200lb) 23-0-1-0 NC 17 KOs
Uzbekistan
重量级

Cruiserweight(200lb) 33-3-0-0 NC - 22 KOs
France
次重量级 50-6-0-0 NC - 23KOs
USA
27-3-1-0 NC -
18KOs Germany

Light Heavyweight(175lb) 32-1-0-0 NC - 13KOs
Croatia
轻重量级

Class 2 中量级

Super Middleweight(168lb) 39-0-0-0 NC -29 KOs Denmark
29-3-0-0 NC 22
KOs Australia

Middleweight(160lb) 28-2-0 0 NC 12 KOs
Germany

Class 3 轻中量级

Super welterweight(154lb) 29-0-0-0 NC 18 KOs Haiti

Welterweight(147lb) 30-0-0-0 NC 25 KOs
Puerto Rico

Class 4 轻量级

Super Lightweight(140lb) 27-0-0-0 NC 13 KOs Wales

Lightweight(135lb) 32-0-0-0 NC 16 KOs
USA

Class 5 轻量级

Super featherweight
(130lb)
Venezuela

featherweight(126lb) 39-0-1-0 NC 20 KOs
Indonesia

Class 6 轻量级

Super Bantamweight(122lb) 26-2-0-0 NC -18 KOs Panama

Bantamweight(118lb) 20-0-2-0 NC 7 kOs
Ukranie

Class 7 轻量级

Super flyweight(115lb) 30-2-0-0 NC 27 KOs
Venezuela

Flyweight(112lb) 31-4-1-0 NC -15KOs
Japan

Class 8 轻量级

lightweight(108lb) 16-0-0 NC - 7
KO's Argentina

Minimum(105lbs)

It took Mike Tyson only one round to knock out member of Young's
family while Ali took 15 rounds with Jimmy Young . Mike Tyson no doubt
is the best African American boxer although his political association
and achievement is never as great as Muhammad Ali.








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World all heavyweight ratings





page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |
9 | 10 | 11 » [1013]






name

W - L - D

last 6

career

stance

nationality






1

Muhammad Ali

56 (37) - 5 (1) - 0



















1960-1981

orthodox

United States






2

Joe Louis

69 (55) - 3 (2) - 0



















1934-1951

orthodox

United States






3

Gene Tunney

82 (48) - 1 (0) - 3



















1915-1928

orthodox

United States






4

Rocky Marciano

49 (43) - 0 (0) - 0



















1947-1955

orthodox

United States






5

Harry Wills

79 (49) - 10 (5) - 4



















1911-1932

orthodox

United States






6

Larry Holmes

69 (44) - 6 (1) - 0



















1973-2002

orthodox

United States






7

Evander Holyfield

42 (27) - 8 (2) - 2



















1984-2007

orthodox

United States






8

Floyd Patterson

55 (40) - 8 (5) - 1



















1952-1972

orthodox

United States






9

Lennox Lewis

41 (32) - 2 (2) - 1



















1989-2003

orthodox

United Kingdom






10

Jack Johnson

92 (51) - 14 (7) - 11



















1894-1938

orthodox

United States






11

Jack Dempsey

67 (52) - 6 (1) - 11



















1914-1927

orthodox

United States






12

George Foreman

76 (68) - 5 (1) - 0



















1969-1997

orthodox

United States






13

Mike Tyson

50 (44) - 6 (5) - 0



















1985-2005

orthodox

United States






14

Billy Miske

73 (33) - 16 (1) - 13



















1913-1923

orthodox

United States






15

Jersey Joe Walcott

51 (32) - 18 (6) - 2



















1930-1953

orthodox

United States






16

Joe Frazier

32 (27) - 4 (3) - 1



















1965-1981

orthodox

United States






17

Jack Sharkey

38 (13) - 14 (4) - 3



















1924-1936

orthodox

United States






18

James Toney

70 (43) - 6 (0) - 3



















1988-2007

orthodox

United States






19

Primo Carnera

89 (72) - 14 (5) - 0



















1928-1946

orthodox

Italy






20

Sonny Liston

50 (39) - 4 (3) - 0



















1953-1970

orthodox

United States




page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |
9 | 10 | 11 » [1013]

- this data may be incomplete and/or inaccurate -
© BoxRec - 0.1498
Quotation fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gladiatorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Co...
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Ancient Olympic Games
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ruins of the training grounds at OlympiaThe Ancient Olympic Games,
originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: Ολυμπιακοί
Αγώνες; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held
between various city-states of Ancient Greece. They began in 776 BC in
Olympia, Greece, and were celebrated until 393 AD[1] The prizes were
olive wreaths, palm branches and woollen ribbons.
Contents [hide]
1 Legendary origin
2 History
3 Olympic truce
4 Events
5 Famous athletes
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 External links
Legendary origin
The origins of the Ancient Olympic Games are unknown, but several
legends and myths have survived. One of these involved Pelops, king of
Olympia and eponymous hero of the Peloponnesus, to whom offerings were
made during the games. The Christian Clement of Alexandria asserted,
"[The] Olympian games are nothing else than the funeral sacrifices of
Pelops."[2] That myth tells of how Pelops' overcame the King and won
the hand of his daughter Hippodamia with the help of Poseidon, his old
lover, a myth linked to the later fall of the house of Atreus and the
sufferings of Oedipus.
A myth tells of the hero Hercules, or Herakles, who won a race at
Olympia and then decreed that the race should be re-enacted every four
years, while another claims that Zeus initiated the festival after his
defeat of the Titan Cronus. Yet another tells of King Iphitos of Elis,
who consulted the Pythia Oracle at Delphi – to try and save his people
from war in the 9th century BC. The prophetess advised him to organize
games in honour of the gods. The Spartan adversary of Iphitos then
decided to stop fighting during these games, which were called
Olympic, after the sanctuary of Olympia where they were held. Had they
been named after Mount Olympus, the mountain on which the Greek gods
were said to live, they would have been called Olympian games rather
than Olympic. The favorite story is that Heracles celebrated cleaning
the Augean Stables by building Olympia with help from Athena.
Whatever their origin, the games were held to be one of the two
central rituals in Ancient Greece, the other being the Eleusinian
Mysteries.[3]
History
The Games first started in Olympia, Greece, in a sanctuary site for
the Greek gods near the towns of Elis and Pisa (both in Elis on the
peninsula of Peloponnesos). The Sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia housed a
12 metre high statue in ivory and gold of Zeus, the father of the
Greek gods, sculpted by Phidias. This statue was one of the ancient
Seven Wonders of the World.
The Olympic Games were held in four year intervals, and later the
Greek method of counting the years even referred to these Games, using
the term Olympiad for the period between two Games. The historian
Ephorus who lived in the 4th century BC is believed to have invented
the use of Olympiads to count years, much as we today use AD and BC.
Previously every Greek state used its own dating system, something
that continued for local events, which led to confusion when trying to
determine dates. "Diodorus states that there was a solar eclipse in
the third year of the 113th Olympiad, which must be the eclipse of 316
BC. This gives us a date of (mid-summer) 786 BC for the first year of
the first Olympiad".[4] Nevertheless, there is disagreement among
scholars whether the games truly began at this time or not.[5]
The "Exedra" reserved for the judges at Olympia on the north
embankment of the stadiumThe only competition held then was, according
to the Greek traveller Pausanias, the stadion race, a race over about
190 metres, measured after the feet of Hercules. The word stadium is
derived from this foot race.
The early Olympics were also held to be the place where the Greek
tradition of athletic nudity was first introduced in 720 BC, either by
the Spartans or by the Megarian Orsippus.
Several groups fought over control of the sanctuary, and hence the
Games, for prestige and political advantage. Pausanias writes that in
668 BC, Pheidon of Argos was commissioned by the town of Pisa to
capture the sanctuary from the town of Elis, which he did and then
personally controlled the Games for that year. The next year Elis
regained control.
The Athenian writer Xenophon in 364 BC gives a contemporary record of
an Elean attack during the Pentathlon final of the Games themselves,
as the Pisans were again in control. The Eleans pushed the defenders
almost to the altar before retreating due to missiles being thrown at
them from the porticos. During that night the defending Arcadians
constructed defensive palisades, and the next morning on seeing the
strength of the defence the Eleans retreated.
Related to the Elis/Pisa conflict, is the Heraea Games, the first
sanctioned competition for women, held in Olympic Stadium. It
originally consisted of foot races only, as did the men's competition.
Some texts, including Pausanias's Description of Greece, c. AD 175,
state that Hippodameia gathered a group known as the "Sixteen Women"
and made them administrators of the Heraea Games, out of gratitude for
her marriage to Pelops. Other texts indicate that the "Sixteen Women"
were peace-makers from Pisa and Elis and, because of their political
competence, became administrators of the Heraea Games.
The Olympic Games were part of the Panhellenic Games, four separate
games held at two- or four-year intervals but arranged so that there
was at least one set of games every year. The Olympic Games were more
important and more prestigious than the Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian
Games.
Finally, the Olympic Games were suppressed by either Theodosius I in
AD 393 or his grandson Theodosius II in AD 435,[6] as part of the
campaign to impose Christianity as a state religion. The site of
Olympia remained until an earthquake destroyed it in the 6th century
AD.
Olympic truce
During the Olympic Games a truce or ekecheiria was observed. Three
runners known as spondophoroi were sent from Elis to the various
participant cities at each set of games to announce the beginning of
the truce. During this period armies were forbidden from entering
Olympia, wars were suspended and legal disputes and the use of the
death penalty were forbidden. The truce was primarily designed to
allow athletes and visitors to travel safely to the games, and was for
the most part observed, although Thucydides wrote of a situation where
the Spartans were forbidden from attending the games and fined 200,000
drachmas for assaulting the city of Lepreum during the period of the
ekechiria, claiming that the truce had not yet taken hold. [7]
Events
Athletes running the hoplitodromosUnlike the Modern Olympic Games,
only free men who spoke Greek were allowed to participate in the
Ancient Games. They were to some extent "international", though, in
the sense that they included athletes from the various Greek city-
states. Additionally, participants eventually came from Greek colonies
as well, extending the range of the games to far shores of the
Mediterranean and of the Black Sea.
In order to be in the games one had to qualify and the athlete had to
have one's name written down in the lists. It seems that only young
people were allowed to participate, as the Greek writer Plutarch
relates that one young man was rejected for seeming too mature, and
only after his lover interceded with the king of Sparta, who
presumably vouched for his youth, was he permitted to participate.
Before being able to participate, every participant had to take an
oath in front of the statue of Zeus saying that he had been in
training for 10 months.
The Olympic games originally contained one event: the stadion (or
"stade") race, a short sprint measuring between 180 and 240 metres, or
the length of the stadium. The actual length of the race is unknown,
since tracks found at archeological sites, as well as literary
evidence, provide conflicting answers. Runners had to pass five stakes
that divided the lanes: one stake at the start, another at the finish,
and three stakes in-between.
A section of the stone starting line at Olympia, which has a groove
for each footThe diaulos, or 2-stade race, was introduced in 724 BC,
during the 14th Olympic games. The race was a single lap of the
stadium, approximately 400 metres, and scholars debate whether or not
the runners had individual "turning" posts for the return leg of the
race, or whether all the runners approached a common post, turned, and
then raced back to the starting line.
A third foot race, the dolichos, was introduced in 720 BC. Separate
accounts of the race present conflicting evidence as to the actual
length of the dolichos. However, the average stated length of the race
was approximately 18-24 laps, or about three miles (5 km). The event
was run similarly to modern marathons- the runners would begin and end
their event in the stadium proper, but the race course would wind its
way through the Olympic grounds. The course would often flank
important shrines and statues in the sanctuary, passing by the Nike
statue by the temple of Zeus before returning to the stadium.
The last running event added to the Olympic program was the
hoplitodromos, or "Hoplite race," introduced in 520 BC and
traditionally run as the last race of the day. The runners would run
either a single or double diaulos (approximately 400 or 800 yards) in
full or partial armour, carrying a shield and additionally equipped
either with greaves or a helmet.[8][9] As the armour weighed between
50 and 60 lb (27 kg), the hoplitodromos emulated the speed and stamina
needed for warfare. Due to ...
閱讀更多 »
drydem
2008-09-19 00:25:19 UTC
Permalink
Post by mrliu918
The Roman gladiator was an important part of Western military
tradition of the past. This is how the West train their boxers and
soldiers in the past.
Yu Fung Liu
Misleading.

A roman gladiator was part of Western entertainment circuit
that was influenced by Roman's fascination for violence and gore.
A roman gladiator is closer to todays TV wrestlers. Another
modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between
two Roman Gladiators was this a BBC TV series called
Robot Wars: diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions
attacked one another - man it was reallly fun to see....

Roman soldier was unique military cultural revolution of
ancient times in that they were one of history's first
full-time professional soldiers. Roman soldier were well trained.
They were trained not just to fight as an individual but as a group.
Roman soldiers also were highly skilled engineers and knew
how to build siege weapons and fortifications. Trained and
maintained as a standing military force to be ready at a
moment's notice....
Dirty Sick Pig
2008-09-19 01:46:55 UTC
Permalink
Another modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between two
diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions attacked one
another - man it was reallly fun to see....
Drydem, you should try the Disney Channel too. It will surely entertain
someone of your mental age.

Your amigo,
D.S.P.
drydem
2008-09-19 23:50:13 UTC
Permalink
Another modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between two
diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions attacked one
another - man it was reallly fun to see....
Drydem, you should try the Disney Channel too.  It will surely entertain
  someone of your mental age.
Your amigo,
D.S.P.
LOL
That Goofy suit you wear everyday must get really hot inside!
After a long day of having kids pinch you
you gotta let out some of that pent up aggression and anger.
Well - that's what the usenet is for - so go ahead and vent.
I'm all ears
as Mickey would say. :-)
Dirty Sick Pig
2008-09-20 01:56:56 UTC
Permalink
Post by drydem
Post by Dirty Sick Pig
Another modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between two
diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions attacked one
another - man it was reallly fun to see....
Drydem, you should try the Disney Channel too. It will surely entertain
someone of your mental age.
Your amigo,
D.S.P.
LOL
That Goofy suit you wear everyday must get really hot inside!
After a long day of having kids pinch you
you gotta let out some of that pent up aggression and anger.
Well - that's what the usenet is for - so go ahead and vent.
I'm all ears
as Mickey would say. :-)
My intentions as far as Miss Piggy is concerned are purely carnal. That
is my idea of fun.

Loading Image...

Horney Pig
(Not a mispelling)
drydem
2008-09-22 02:26:08 UTC
Permalink
Post by drydem
Another modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between two
diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions attacked one
another - man it was reallly fun to see....
Drydem, you should try the Disney Channel too.  It will surely entertain
  someone of your mental age.
Your amigo,
D.S.P.
LOL
That Goofy suit you wear everyday must get really hot inside!
After a long day of having kids pinch you
         you gotta let out some of that pent up aggression and anger.
Well - that's what the usenet is for - so go ahead and vent.
I'm all ears
   as Mickey would say.  :-)
My intentions as far as Miss Piggy is concerned are purely carnal.  That
is my idea of fun.
But Miss Piggy is spoken for.-- She's got the hots for that green
guy... %|

mrliu918
2008-09-21 08:49:58 UTC
Permalink
Qoutation from wikipeida

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sparta#Military_life
http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E6%96%AF%E5%B7%B4%E8%BE%BE
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/300_(film)

Sparta
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding reliable references.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2007)

For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality).
For other uses, see Sparta (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 37°4′55″N, 22°25′25″E
Σπάρτα
Sparta

11th century BC – 371 BC →






Territory of ancient Sparta
Capital Sparta
Language(s) Doric Greek
Religion Polytheism
Government Oligarchy
Historical era Classical Antiquity
- Dorian invasion 11th century BC
- Peloponnesian League 546-371 BC
- Peace of Callias 371 BC

The city of Sparta (Doric Σπάρτα; Attic Σπάρτη Spartē) was a city-
state in ancient Greece, situated on the River Eurotas in the southern
part of the Peloponnese.[1] Between c. 650 and 362 B.C. it was the
dominant military power in the region, and as such was recognised as
the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-
Persian Wars.[2] Between 431-404 B.C., it was the principal enemy of
Athens during the Peloponnesian War.[3] By the year 362 B.C., Sparta's
role as the dominant military power in Greece was over, but the so-
called Spartan myth continues to fascinate Western culture.[4][5] The
majority of inhabitants of Sparta were helots who, every autumn during
the Crypteia, could be killed by a Spartan citizen without fear of
blood or guilt.[6][7][8]

Contents [hide]
1 Lacedaemon
2 History
2.1 Antiquity
2.2 Rise and decline
3 Government
3.1 Constitution
3.2 State organization
3.3 Military and foreign policy
4 The Spartan world
5 Society
5.1 Helots
5.2 Military life
5.3 Role of women
5.3.1 Political, social, and economic equality
5.3.2 Sexual equality
5.3.3 Historic women
5.4 Culture
5.5 Criticism
6 Archaeology
7 Eugenics
8 Famous Spartans
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 External links

[edit] Military and foreign policy
The Lacedaimonians were the only people in ancient Greece to employ a
core army of full-time soldiers. Their state institutions and system
of education were designed for the purpose of creating these superbly-
trained soldiers. The whole army consisted of these heavy armed elite
soldiers and several times their number of light armed helots and
other conscripts. In later times these were augmented with
mercenaries. The Spartans used, among other emblems, the red Greek
capital letter lambda (Λ) (displayed on their shields) as an
identification as the people of Lacedaemon, their home city-state or
polis.[19]

Sparta, by the 4th century BC, was the most powerful nation in all of
Greece. Unlike many of the Greek city-states it had only one colony,
Taras, and most of its power came from alliances with other regions.
Sparta was not an empire: no tribute was paid except in times of war.
What Sparta essentially formed was a league, and they chose their
allies strategically. For example, Sparta favoured Corinth because of
its naval fleet, and indeed Corinth sat on the ithsmus between Attica
and the Pelopennese, an important strategical position, seeing as any
Infantry invasion would have to go through Corinth. The allies would
vow to have the same friends and enemies, follow Sparta wherever they
led, and not go to war unless all the allies were in consensus. The
league's governmental structure was an oligarchy run by aristocrats;
it met in Corinth and was led by Sparta. The Congress, as it was
called, consisted of representatives from each of the allied city
states who each held one vote.

Military life

Statue of King Leonidas I in SpartaSpartan citizen boys left home for
military boarding school at the age of seven and were required to
serve in the army until age of thirty.[25] Then they passed into the
active reserve, where they remained until the age of sixty. Spartan
education from the ages of seven to thirty emphasized physical
toughness, steadfastness in military ranks, and absolute obedience to
orders. The ordinary Spartan was a citizen-warrior, or hoplite,
trained to obey and endure; he became a politician only if chosen as
ephor for a single year. He could be elected a life member of the
council after his sixtieth year, in which he would be free from
military service. Men were encouraged to marry at the age of twenty
but could not live with their families until they left their active
military service at age thirty.[25] The Spartans perfected the craft
of hoplite warfare. They called themselves "homoioi" (equals),
pointing to their common lifestyle and the discipline of the phalanx,
which demanded that no soldier be superior to his comrades.[26]

When the Spartans began military training – aged seven – they would
enter the agoge system for the education and training—everything from
physical training such as hunting and dancing, to emotional, and
spiritual training. At that age they would have to go through what was
known as the gauntlet. They would have to run around a group of older
children, who would flog them continually with whips, sometimes to
death. As they were lightly clothed, and had no bedding to speak of,
children would often put thistles in their pallet because the
prickling sensation made them feel warmer.


Perhaps the most widely known event on the efficiency of the Spartan
war-machine is related to the Persian Wars. The Spartan stand at the
Battle of Thermopylae has been repeatedly cited in a military grand
strategy context as a role model concerning the advantages of
training, strategy and bravery against extremely overwhelming odds and
is often referred to as the greatest last stand of a military force in
documented history.


嬰兒
斯巴達猶如一個大軍營,其公民的嬰兒剛出生時,便要被檢驗體質,如果不合要求,便會被拋棄至荒山野嶺;作為母親的,會用烈酒為其嬰兒洗澡,若受不了的,
則任由他死去,這是因為斯巴達人只要最好的戰士。


[編輯] 男孩
男孩在7歲前是由雙親撫養的,但其父母從小則會訓練他們成為獨立堅強的戰士,甚至有點冷酷無情。7歲後便會編入團隊進行軍訓。他們要被訓練為絕對服從,
身手敏捷,不怕艱苦的軍人,所以每年均會被火辣辣的皮鞭鞭打,並不許求饒或叫喊。當男孩過了12歲,便會被編入少年隊,只能光頭赤腳,不論天氣冷暖均只
許穿一件外衣。至20歲後,則成為正規軍人。30歲時便會成親,但還是要每天作軍訓。60歲時便會退役,但仍要作為預備軍,隨時候命。凡斯巴達男子皆會
食於公共食堂,食品粗疏,除執政官外,雖國王亦須在此會食。食時得暢談國事,少年子弟因得於此獲得政治上的知識。


[編輯] 女孩
女孩過了7歲仍留在家裡,但並不從事刺繡等雜務,而是進行艱苦的體格訓練。因為斯巴達人認為只有強壯的母親,方能孕育出勇悍的戰士。因此斯巴達的婦女都
十分堅忍,並不怕看到兒子浴血沙場。當兒子要上戰場時,她們並不會為其祝福,而是給他一個盾牌,並對其說:「孩子,帶著盾牌回來,不然就躺在盾牌上回
來。」即謂:如果你不能凱旋,就應戰死沙場。

[編輯] 波斯戰爭
主條目:波希戰爭
斯巴達人的驍勇善戰可以由波希戰爭裡得見。

在溫泉關戰役,斯巴達國王列奧尼達一世以其本國精兵300人、700名底比斯人和6000名希臘各其它城邦的聯軍,在溫泉關抵擋了數量上遠遠超過他們的
波斯軍隊,長達三天,使得波斯軍隊在頭兩天不得寸進,並且死傷慘重。但在第三天,一個希臘當地的居民背叛希臘陣營,帶領波斯軍隊沿著山區的小徑繞到希臘
聯軍的後方,見此列奧尼達解散了希臘聯軍,留下300名斯巴達精兵與700名底比斯志願軍殿後。

在經過一番激烈廝殺後,殿後的志願軍全軍覆滅,但成功阻慢波斯國王薛西斯一世所統率的大軍前進,結果最後希臘戰勝了波斯,斯巴達人應記一功。

有關300士兵戰勝波斯大軍的歷史,華納電影公司在2007年將有關歷史改變拍成了電影《300壯士:斯巴達的逆襲》(300)。不過為了顧及電影效果
的關係,和史實會有出入,包括人物造型等。
Quotation fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gladiatorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Co...
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Gladiator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation).
The Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna) prob. 2nd c. AD: A thraex
and murmillo, a hoplomachus and murmillo (who is signaling his defeat
to the referee), and a matched pair.Gladiators (Latin: gladiatōrēs,
"swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword," from gladius, "sword") were
professional fighters in ancient Rome who fought against each other,
wild animals, and condemned criminals, sometimes to the death, for the
entertainment of spectators. These fights took place in arenas in many
cities from the Roman Republic period through the Roman Empire.
Contents [hide]
1 History of gladiatorial combats
1.1 Origins
2 Peak
2.1 Amphitheatres
2.2 The games
3 Decline
4 Life as a gladiator
4.1 Origins
4.2 Training
4.3 Typical combat
4.4 Life expectancy of a gladiator
4.5 Slave revolts
5 Roman attitudes
5.1 Towards gladiators
5.2 Retiarius Tunicatus
6 Female gladiators
7 Emperors as gladiators
8 Misconceptions
9 Gladiators in films and television
10 See also
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
[edit] History of gladiatorial combats
[edit] Origins
The origin of the gladiatorial games is not known for certain. There
are two theories: that the Romans adopted gladiatorial fights from the
Etruscans, and that the games came from Campania and Lucania. The
evidence for the theory of Etruscan origin is a passage by the Greek
writer Nicolaus of Damascus in the second half of the first century
BCE describing the origins as Etruscan, an account by Isidore of
Seville during the 600s relating the Latin word for gladiator manager,
lanista, to the Etruscan word for "executioner", and also likeness of
the Roman god of hell, Charon, who accompanied the executed bodies as
they exited the arena, to the Etruscan god of death, also named
Charon. The theory that the games developed from a Campanian and
Lucanian tradition is supported by frescoes dating to the fourth
century BCE depicting funeral games in which pair of gladiators fought
to the death to commemorate the death of an important individual.
However, the Campanians could also have adapted this tradition from
the Greeks who could have introduced funeral games with human
sacrifices to the area in the eighth century BCE. Regardless of the
origin, the Romans adopted the tradition of funeral games to display
important people's status and power.
The earliest known gladiatorial games were held in 310 BC by the
Campanians (Livy 9.40.17). These games re-enacted the Campanians'
military success over the Samnites.
The first recorded Roman gladiatorial combats took place in Rome in
264 BC, at the start of the First Punic War against Carthage. Decimus
Junius Brutus Albinus staged it in honour of his dead father Brutus
Pera. It was held between three pairs of slaves chosen from among 22
prisoners of war, and held in the cattle market (Forum Boarium). The
ceremony was called a munus or “duty paid to a dead ancestor by his
descendants, with the intention of keeping alive his memory” (Baker,
Gladiator 10). Roman aristocrats soon took up the practice as an
alternative to the earlier custom of sacrificing prisoners on the
graves of warriors, with events being held for notable people and
repeated every one to five years after the person’s death.
These games became popular throughout the Empire and were especially
popular in Greece. So popular that there are many records of people in
towns where prominent citizens died virtually extorting promises of
gladiatorial games from the survivors. The aristocracy also began to
compete in having the best games so that whereas the sons of Brutus
Pera offered three matches, a century later, Titus Flamininus offered
74 matches lasting three days for his father's funeral and by the
passing of yet another century Julius Caesar promised 320 matches for
his daughter, Julia. As a result the emperors eventually had to
regulate how much could be spent on gladiatorial performances to
prevent members of the elite from bankrupting themselves.
Gradually, as the connection to funerals faded in the late second
century BC, the funeral games gradually transformed into public
performances. Julius Caesar eventually owned so many gladiators that
the Senate, fearing the use such a "private army" could be put to,
passed a law limiting private citizens to owning no more than 640
gladiators.[1] The moment when a true split from the funeral backdrop
occurred was after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. Bad
omens plagued the city and the games were seen as a method to please
the gods and save Rome. During the first century A.D., giving games
even became a requirement of some public offices.
Over time the games had became integrated ever more into the Imperial
cult through games financed by the state or by the Emperors as a means
to get public approval, and especially so in the provincial towns.
After Caesars' death a clear distinction between games organized by
public officials (ludi) and those held by private citizens (munera)
was set. Although it was still possible for private citizens to
organise their own gladiatorial games, Augustus decreed that they
could use no more than 120 gladiators and the days on which such
private games could be organised were limited: from December 2 to
December 8, during the Saturnalia from December 17 to December 23 (the
Winter solstice), and between March 19 and March 23 for the Spring
celebration of Quinquatria.
[edit] Peak
[edit] Amphitheatres
Roman arena at Arles, inside view.The popularity of the games resulted
in the construction of proper venues and transformation of others
(such as the Roman Forum) into spaces for the spectacles.
Gladiator fights took place in these amphitheatres during the
afternoon of a full day event. The amphitheaters built were made of
wood and were usually neither structurally sound, often being prone to
collapse,[2] nor did they survive the fires of Rome. The first
permanent amphitheater in Rome dates to around 30 BC. Not until AD 70
and Vespasian's reign did plans for a purpose built stone venue for
the games develop. The Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium) was unveiled
in AD 80.
The Stone Pine, a conifer native to the Iberian Peninsula was often
planted near the local amphitheatre in foreign countries. The aromatic
pinecones were traditionally burnt in bowls (tazze = cups) to mask the
smell of the arena. The word “arena” means sand, a reference to the
thick layer of sand on the floor for the purpose of soaking up the
blood.
The spectator seating in amphitheatres was originally "disorderly and
indiscriminate" until Augustus was upset at the insult to a senator,
to whom no one offered a seat at a crowded games in Puteoli.
"In consequence of this the senate decreed that, whenever any public
show was given anywhere, the first row of seats should be reserved for
senators; and at Rome he would not allow the envoys of the free and
allied nations to sit in the orchestra, since he was informed that
even freedmen were sometimes appointed. He separated the soldiery from
the people. He assigned special seats to the married men of the
commons, to boys under age their own section and the adjoining one to
their preceptors; and he decreed that no one wearing a dark cloak
should sit in the middle of the house. He would not allow women to
view even the gladiators except from the upper seats, though it had
been the custom for men and women to sit together at such shows. Only
the Vestal virgins were assigned a place to themselves, opposite the
praetor's tribunal"
(Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars Augustus, XLIV).
[edit] The games
The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. A photograph of the best known Roman era
amphitheatre taken in the early evening. Gladiatorial combats were the
main event and usually held around this time of day.The games were
carefully and precisely planned by an organizer (editor) on behalf of
the emperor. The combinations of animals and gladiator types were
meticulously planned, such that the show would be most appealing to
the audience. Gladiators would be publicly displayed in the Roman
forum to large crowds one to two days prior to the actual event.
Programmes containing the gladiatorial and personal history of the
fighters were passed out. Banquets for the gladiators were also held
the evening before the games and many attended these as well. Even the
criminals (noxii) listed to fight were at times permitted to attend.
When the day of the event came, gladiator fights were preceded by
animal-on-animal fights, animal hunts (venationes), and public
executions of condemned criminals (damnati) during lunchtime. As it
was considered bad taste to watch the executions, the upper classes
would usually leave and return after lunch. The Emperor Claudius was
often criticised because he usually stayed in the stadium to watch the
executions. The damnati were sometimes required to fight battle
recreations or in paired gladiatorial combats against each. The winner
then fought a new opponent and so on until only one was left alive.
Usually this "winner" was then himself put to death but he could be
spared if he showed sufficient bravery. Under Nero, it became the
practice to perform plays adapted from myths in which people died and
assigning the role of a character who would die to a condemned man.
The audience would then watch the play, and the actual killing of the
condemned man in the same manner as the fictional character.[3] Before
the afternoon fights began, a procession (pompa) was led into the
arena containing the organizer, his servants, ...
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